The painting techniques are divided according to how diluted and fix the pigments on the surface to be painted. In general, if the pigments are not soluble in the binder remain dispersed in it. If the artist thinks about the durability of his work should know thetechniques to use.
The pigment is added to oils, and the solvent is usual turpentine. The oil painting is mostly with dry powdered pigment mixed with a suitable viscosity with some vegetable oil, usually linseed oil. These oils dry more slowly than other paints, not by evaporation but by “oxidation”. Pigment layers are formed that are embedded in the base and that, when controlling the drying time shall be set correctly to the following layers of pigment.This oxidation process gives richness and depth to the colors of dry pigment, and the artist can vary the proportions of oil and solvents such as turpentine, paint surface to present a range of qualities, opaque or transparent, matte or glossy . For this and other reasons, the oil can be considered as the most flexible of all. Conveniently used, oil painting color changes very little during drying, although long-term tends to yellow slightly. Their ability to withstand successive layers allows the artist to develop a pictorial concept in stages, Degas called this process “(well thought)” – and slow drying paint allows you to withdraw and go over entire areas.
Watercolor and Tempera
When the vehicle used to fix the pigment is, in most cases, gum arabic and the solvent is water. The watercolors are very finely ground pigments in an adhesive gum arabic, which is obtained from the acacias. The gum dissolves easily in water and adhere well to paper (media of choice for the watercolor). The rubber also acts as a varnish, clear and thin, with greater brightness and light color. At first gum arabic was used alone, but later added other components to slow the drying and add transparency. The watercolor artist requires safety strokes and spontaneity in execution, and that his greatest merit is the freshness and transparency of the colors.
Gouache or “watery” is also called “the body color.” It is a water-based paint, opaque, made from ground pigment coarser than that of the watercolors, and is therefore less transparent. Like watercolor, his half-or-binder is gum arabic, although many modern gouaches contain plastic. The media is enhanced with white pigment, which is what makes it more opaque, less luminous and less transparent watercolor, but acambio the colors produced are stronger.
Wax or incáustica or “encaustic”
When the vehicle are waxes, which are normally used hot.
In this technique, acrylic paints are used in aerosol (spray). Besides glazes … as paint thinner becomes …
When the vehicle is used various synthetic materials that are diluted in water. The viscosity can be as high as in the oil (the presentation too, as they come in tubes).Some artists prefer acrylic paint in oils as turpentine, solvent oil, emits toxic fumes. You could say it is a modern replacement oil, and like many innovations has its advantages and disadvantages.
The cakes are powdered pigments mixed with enough gum or resin to form a paste agglutinate dry and compact. The word cake derived from the paste with which these paints are produced. This paste is molded into the form of a rod about the size of a finger, which is used directly (without “brush” or “spatulas”, or any solvent) on the working surface (usually paper or wood). Opaque colors are strong and whose main difficulty is the adhesion of the pigment to the surface to be painted, so often used to finish drawing fasteners atomized (spray) special. The cake is usually used as the “crayon” or “graphite” (pencil), and its means of expression is more akin line with which to make frames. Also often used the dust tends to loosen the cake (similar to the “chalk”) to apply color.
When the binder is an emulsion, generally egg yolk, oil and water. Traditionally the yolk is mixed with water and oil, but also can form an emulsion with flour and even with plaster. Masterpieces such as The Birth of Venus by Sandro Botticelli were performed using the technique of egg tempera.
Often the term is used incorrectly cool to describe many forms of mural painting. The real cool is a modern painting techniques that Latin is a modern language. Fresh technique is based on a chemical change: the earth pigments milled and mixed with pure water, are applied to a recent mortar of lime and sand, while the lime is still in the form of calcium hydroxide. Because carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, the lime is converted into calcium carbonate, so that the pigment crystallizes within the wall. The procedures for painting in fresco are simple but laborious and very time-consuming. In the preparation of lime it took two years.
The presentation of the ink, also called “India ink” is usually liquid but can also be a very solid bar that must be crushed and diluted beforehand. Use on paper and ink colors used are more black and “sepia”, although it is now used much more. The ink is applied in different ways, for example with pens or pens that are best suited for drawing or handwriting, and not for paints. Different pen tips charged ink used to make lines and draw or write with them. Another remedy is to apply the ink brush, which is operated primarily as watercolor and gouache called, despite the ancient technique called calligraphy or Japanese writing is also done with ink and brush on paper. Other, more utilitarian use is chalk ink (ink loader) or rapidograph. The ink with graphite are rather drawing techniques.
The ink neutral is a common technique in the restoration of mural paintings. Used when the restorer is with heavy losses and was known as the original. It consists of applying a uniform color in the area lost, which does not bother too much and sing with the general coloring of the work.
When using different painting techniques in one package. The collage, for example, is an artistic technique (not pictorial for not being painted), it becomes a mixed technique when you have interventions gouache, oil or ink. As proof of its artistic possibilities, citing the technique introduced by the painter Carlos Benitez fields since the beginning of the century, which is an oil painting of the time any event, on paper glued to the news media that publish it.